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The first nuclear power plant in Uzbekistan will be built near Lake Tuzkan. Deputies, environmentalists and other specialists went to the Farish district of Jizzakh region to find out the opinion of local residents about the appearance of an energy giant in the near future, and also to tell them more about this project.
At some point, residents of Farish region polls have become experts in electrical appliances. This knowledge is specific. If children understand the types and capacities of batteries for flashlights, then housewives are well aware of energy-saving light bulbs with a built-in battery. Men deal more seriously with equipment: petrol and diesel generators. The appearance of the novelty - “engine”, which runs on compressed gas, has caused more hype here than when the release of the next model of iPhone was discussed in Tashkent. All these, as it is now fashionable to call, competencies - are forced. Farish, like a number of other districts in the republic, does not bypass the interruptions in power supply.
Why it happens? The answer is in extremely simple arithmetic. The country's annual need is 69 billion kilowatt-hours. The existing heat and hydro power plants generate 64 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. According to forecasts, by 2030 the need will double, and the deficit, if not introduce new sources of generation, to 48 billion kilowatt-hours.
So they are forced, recognizes a local resident, Anvar Husanov, to somehow get out of the situation. Summer is still bearable. In winter, when turning off the electricity, is already more difficult. It gets dark early and cold. Then go to the course of various kinds of devices, which are mentioned above. Or old-fashioned lamps and candles.
Atom on the road
It seems that the locals are not accustomed to complaining. Although it seems from the side: there are plenty of reasons. The area is remote, changes are not happening so quickly. Off-road, poor infrastructure and industry - the first thing that catches your eye. Unemployment - see its consequences later. According to the estimates of the district hokimiyat, on the territory with a population of 90 thousand, five thousand people need employment.
Now imagine who those Farish perceived are those who promise to solve all the most serious problems in one fell swoop, and also build a town of nuclear scientists and establish communications. At least sorcerers.
- “There will be no interruptions in power supply not only among you, but throughout the entire vast region,” said Boriy Alikhonov, Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis, speaking before the district’s activists. - If we talk about employment, then there simply will not be left vacancies. And the salary on such a large object will be appropriate.
In response to existing concerns about the construction of NPPs by foreign workers, the representative of the general contractor, Atomstroyexport’s Vice-President Andrei Kuchumov, assured that they would not be implementing the project on their own, but to make the most of Uzbekistan’s potential - these are construction companies of the country and in the scope of localization and equipment delivery provided for by the project.
The most anticipated, of course, was the question of how safe the neighborhood would be with a huge object, the name of which contains the awe-inspiring word “atom”.
According to Boriy Alikhonov, despite the alarming associations, a nuclear power plant cannot be tied up with nuclear weapons. Uranium will be loaded with up to five percent enrichment in nuclear power plants; it does not explode. Weapon-grade uranium is adjusted to rates a multiple of the above.
As experts assure, even if the Boeing crashes to the station from the sky, it will continue to work. She is not afraid, for example, flooding. For safety of generation 3+ reactors - these will appear in Farish - 21 independent systems are responsible. If we assume that at the nuclear power plant, having overcome 11 levels of physical security, the attacker sneaks in, then he will not be able to provoke an accident. Systems operating autonomously from each other will not allow this.
Considered a sad experience. The cause of the Chernobyl catastrophe in 1986 was the human factor, as well as the consequences of the tests led by, as we remember from the chronicle and the sensational series, Anatoly Dyatlov. The agency "Uzatom" claim that human intervention in the work of the generation "3+" reactors is completely excluded. In addition, according to the requirements of the IAEA, any experiments with reactors of power plants are prohibited. Work has been done on the mistakes and in relation to Fukushima.
The first. Uzbekistan
Talking about the benefits nevertheless sounds louder than those about risks. No joke - the district will become the first atomic capital of the whole of Central Asia.
At the present moment, Farish can be called the leader among rural areas in the number of scientists per square meter. They are literally under a magnifying glass studying every inch of the terrain, where the station buildings will potentially grow.
“The second stage of engineering and exploration work has begun,” said Zhurabek Mirzamakhmudov, first deputy minister of energy of Uzbekistan, general director of the Uzatom agency. - This site is selected on the basis of a one-year study of all possible. It meets a number of criteria that are imposed for the construction of such objects.
According to the general director of the institute "UzGASHKLITI" Yuldash Magrupov, the specialists investigated 735 square kilometers in order to take into account all possible influences of a regional nature, all factors that may cause any negative influence. The earth was drilled up to 120 meters deep, three-dimensional plans help to make drones. 17 volumes of research have already been transferred to customers - Russian specialists.
Along the perimeter, seven seismic stations were installed. The instruments determined that in this zone the maximum earthquakes are seven-point. According to the project the NPP is able to withstand all nine.
At the site for the first time sounded the name of the object - the first Uzbekistan NPP. That is how the nuclear station is called. Later, it is possible that they will hold a competition if the present does not take root. According to J. Mirzamahmudov, now all efforts are focused on doing the job qualitatively.
Facts and Figures
- Power units 451 nuclear power plants (NPP) operate in 30 countries. The number of leading US (99), France (58), China (46), Japan (42), Russia (37).
- The total amount of electricity produced by NPPs is 11 percent.
“The first nuclear power plant in Uzbekistan is two generation VVER-1200“ 3+ ”power units with 1,200 MW each. Exit at full capacity is scheduled for 2030.
The construction of nuclear power plants in Uzbekistan, according to experts, will allow:
* produce in 2030, 18 percent of the total electricity,
* save annually 3.5-3.7 billion cubic meters of natural gas,
* At the construction stage, it will create more than eight thousand, and after construction - more than 2.5 thousand jobs. Each due to the multiplicative effect will lead to the creation of seven more vacancies.
* Prevents emissions of up to 14 million tons of CO2 and up to 36 thousand tons of greenhouse gases.
Yodgor USMANOV, a resident of Farish district:
- I do not care about the future of the district, and therefore listened attentively to the experts, deputies. Expectations are the best. We need jobs so that the young people don’t leave, the district’s economy will also grow, there will be a steady light in the houses, and the electricity supply is pretty bored.
I work as a sanitary doctor at the local SES. The fact that the peaceful atom is safe, knew before. However, it was interesting to know the opinion of experts of a narrow profile. I tried to delve into the subtleties, then to tell my friends and relatives. I fully support the project. This is a necessary and important matter.
Alisher SANITULLAYEV, Head of the branch of the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI" in Tashkent:
- Training of highly qualified specialists for the field of nuclear energy started in advance. By the decree of the President of our country, a branch of the university has been opened, which is among the top three in Russia in terms of the quality of education. Every year, starting from this, the Tashkent branch of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute will accept 100 students in four areas: nuclear power and thermal physics, nuclear physics and technology, power engineering and heat engineering, electric power engineering and electrical engineering. All students will begin to study on a grant basis.
Abdurahim KURBONOV, deputy of the Legislative Chamber, member of the deputy group of the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan:
- Recently, the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis adopted in the second and third readings a draft law “On the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes”. This creates a legal basis for the work of state institutions in the field of nuclear energy, as well as the mechanisms that will ensure the safety of its use.
Every year, several million tons of coal, billions of cubic meters of gas and other fuels are burned to generate electricity. Emissions of huge volumes enter the atmosphere. Commensurate and harm to human health, the environment. The launch of the NPP will not only provide an opportunity to generate clean energy, but also to cover the needs of a growing economy. We saw with our own eyes the site where the station will appear, talked with experts. Now the task is to bring to the local population the benefits of new technologies, how they will change life, help develop the country.